Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Bill (HC Bill 7)

A

BILL

TO

Make provision about anti-social behaviour, crime and disorder, includingprovision about recovery of possession of dwelling-houses; to make provisionamending the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, Schedules 7 and 8 to the TerrorismAct 2000 and the Extradition Act 2003; to make provision about firearms andabout forced marriage; to make provision about the police, the IndependentPolice Complaints Commission and the Serious Fraud Office; to makeprovision about criminal justice and court fees; and for connected purposes.

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice andconsent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this presentParliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Part 1Injunctions to prevent nuisance and annoyance

Injunctions to prevent nuisance and annoyance

1Power to grant injunctions

(1)5A court may grant an injunction under this section against a person aged 10 orover (“the respondent”) if two conditions are met.

(2)The first condition is that the court is satisfied, on the balance of probabilities,that the respondent has engaged or threatens to engage in conduct capable ofcausing nuisance or annoyance to any person (“anti-social behaviour”).

(3)10The second condition is that the court considers it just and convenient to grantthe injunction for the purpose of preventing the respondent from engaging inanti-social behaviour.

(4)An injunction under this section may for the purpose of preventing therespondent from engaging in anti-social behaviour—

(a)15prohibit the respondent from doing anything described in theinjunction;

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 2

(b)require the respondent to do anything described in the injunction.

(5)Prohibitions and requirements in an injunction under this section must, so faras practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the respondent’s religious beliefs;

(b)5any interference with the times, if any, at which the respondentnormally works or attends school or any other educationalestablishment;

(c)any conflict with the requirements of any other court order orinjunction to which the respondent may be subject.

(6)10An injunction under this section must—

(a)specify the period for which it has effect, or

(b)state that it has effect until further order.

In the case of an injunction granted before the respondent has reached the ageof 18, a period must be specified and it must be no more than 12 months.

(7)15An injunction under this section may specify periods for which particularprohibitions or requirements have effect.

(8)Jurisdiction under this Part is exercisable by—

(a)a youth court, in the case of a respondent aged under 18;

(b)the High Court or the county court, in any other case.

20Contents of injunctions

2Requirements included in injunctions

(1)An injunction under section 1 that includes a requirement must specify theperson who is to be responsible for supervising compliance with therequirement.

25The person may be an individual or an organisation.

The person may be an individual or an organisation.

(2)Before including a requirement, the court must receive evidence about itssuitability and enforceability from—

(a)the individual to be specified under subsection (1), if an individual is to30be specified;

(b)an individual representing the organisation to be specified undersubsection (1), if an organisation is to be specified.

(3)Before including two or more requirements, the court must consider theircompatibility with each other.

(4)35It is the duty of a person specified under subsection (1)

(a)to make any necessary arrangements in connection with therequirements for which the person has responsibility (the “relevantrequirements”);

(b)to promote the respondent’s compliance with the relevant40requirements;

(c)if the person considers that the respondent—

(i)has complied with all the relevant requirements, or

(ii)has failed to comply with a relevant requirement,

to inform the person who applied for the injunction and the45appropriate chief officer of police.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 3

(5)In subsection (4)(c) “the appropriate chief officer of police” means—

(a)the chief officer of police for the police area in which it appears to theperson specified under subsection (1) that the respondent lives, or

(b)if it appears to that person that the respondent lives in more than one5police area, whichever of the relevant chief officers of police that personthinks it most appropriate to inform.

(6)A respondent subject to a requirement included in an injunction under section1 must—

(a)keep in touch with the person specified under subsection (1) in relation10to that requirement, in accordance with any instructions given by thatperson from time to time;

(b)notify the person of any change of address.

These obligations have effect as requirements of the injunction.

3Power of arrest

(1)15A court granting an injunction under section 1 may attach a power of arrest toa prohibition or requirement of the injunction if the court thinks that—

(a)the anti-social behaviour in which the respondent has engaged orthreatens to engage consists of or includes the use or threatened use ofviolence against other persons, or

(b)20there is a significant risk of harm to other persons from the respondent.

“Requirement” here does not include one that has the effect of requiring therespondent to participate in particular activities.

(2)If the court attaches a power of arrest, the injunction may specify a period forwhich the power is to have effect which is shorter than that of the prohibition25or requirement to which it relates.

Applications for injunctions

4Applications for injunctions

(1)An injunction under section 1 may be granted only on the application of—

(a)a local authority,

(b)30a housing provider,

(c)the chief officer of police for a police area,

(d)the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force,

(e)Transport for London,

(f)the Environment Agency, or

(g)35the Secretary of State exercising security management functions withinthe meaning given by section 195(3) of the National Health Service Act2006, or the Welsh Ministers exercising corresponding functions, or aSpecial Health Authority exercising any such functions on the directionof the Secretary of State or the Welsh Ministers.

(2)40A housing provider may make an application only if the application concernsanti-social behaviour that directly or indirectly relates to or affects its housingmanagement functions.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) the housing management functions of ahousing provider include—

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 4

(a)functions conferred by or under an enactment;

(b)the powers and duties of the housing provider as the holder of an estateor interest in housing accommodation.

(4)The Secretary of State may by order—

(a)5amend this section;

(b)amend section 19 in relation to expressions used in this section.

5Applications without notice

(1)An application for an injunction under section 1 may be made without noticebeing given to the respondent.

(2)10If an application is made without notice the court must either—

(a)adjourn the proceedings and grant an interim injunction (see section 6),or

(b)adjourn the proceedings without granting an interim injunction, or

(c)dismiss the application.

15Interim injunctions

6Interim injunctions

(1)This section applies where the court adjourns the hearing of an application(whether made with notice or without) for an injunction under section 1.

(2)The court may grant an injunction under that section lasting until the final20hearing of the application or until further order (an “interim injunction”) if thecourt thinks it just to do so.

(3)An interim injunction made at a hearing of which the respondent was notgiven notice may not have the effect of requiring the respondent to participatein particular activities.

(4)25Subject to that, the court has the same powers (including powers undersection 3) whether or not the injunction is an interim injunction.

Variation and discharge

7Variation or discharge of injunctions

(1)The court may vary or discharge an injunction under section 1 on the30application of—

(a)the person who applied for the injunction, or

(b)the respondent.

(2)The power to vary an injunction includes power—

(a)to include an additional prohibition or requirement in the injunction, or35to extend the period for which a prohibition or requirement has effect;

(b)to attach a power of arrest, or to extend the period for which a power ofarrest has effect.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 5

(3)If an application under this section is dismissed, the party by which thedismissed application was made may make no further application under thissection without—

(a)the consent of the court, or

(b)5the agreement of the other party.

(4)Section 2 applies to additional requirements included under subsection (2)(a)above as it applies to requirements included in a new injunction.

Breach of injunctions

8Arrest without warrant

(1)10Where a power of arrest is attached to a provision of an injunction undersection 1, a constable may arrest the respondent without warrant if he or shehas reasonable cause to suspect that the respondent is in breach of theprovision.

(2)A constable who arrests a person under subsection (1) must inform the person15who applied for the injunction.

(3)A person arrested under subsection (1) must, within the period of 24 hoursbeginning with the time of the arrest, be brought before—

(a)a judge of the county court, if the injunction was granted by the countycourt;

(b)20a justice of the peace, if the injunction was granted by a youth court.

(4)In calculating when the period of 24 hours ends, Christmas Day, Good Fridayand any Sunday are to be disregarded.

(5)The judge before whom a person is brought under subsection (3)(a) mayremand the person if the matter is not disposed of straight away.

(6)25The justice of the peace before whom a person is brought under subsection(3)(b) must remand the person to appear before—

(a)the youth court that granted the injunction, if the person is aged under18;

(b)the county court, if the person is aged 18 or over.

930Issue of arrest warrant

(1)If the person who applied for an injunction under section 1 thinks that therespondent is in breach of any of its provisions, the person may apply for theissue of a warrant for the respondent’s arrest.

(2)The application must be made to—

(a)35a judge of the county court, if the injunction was granted by the countycourt;

(b)a justice of the peace, if the injunction was granted by a youth court.

(3)A judge or justice may issue a warrant under this section only if the judge orjustice has reasonable grounds for believing that the respondent is in breach of40a provision of the injunction.

(4)A warrant issued by a judge of the county court must require the respondentto be brought before that court.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 6

(5)A warrant issued by a justice of the peace must require the respondent to bebrought before—

(a)the youth court that granted the injunction, if the person is aged under18;

(b)5the county court, if the person is aged 18 or over.

(6)A constable who arrests a person under a warrant issued under this sectionmust inform the person who applied for the injunction.

(7)If the respondent is brought before a court by virtue of a warrant under thissection but the matter is not disposed of straight away, the court may remand10the respondent.

10Remands

Schedule 1 (remands under sections 8 and 9) has effect.

11Powers in respect of under-18s

Schedule 2 (breach of injunctions: powers of court in respect of under-18s) has15effect.

Powers of court on application by provider of residential accommodation

12Power to exclude person from home in cases of violence or risk of harm

(1)An injunction under section 1 may have the effect of excluding the respondentfrom the place where he or she normally lives only if—

(a)20that place is owned or managed by a local authority or a housingprovider,

(b)the injunction is granted on the application of the local authority orhousing provider, and

(c)the court thinks that—

(i)25the anti-social behaviour in which the respondent has engagedor threatens to engage consists of or includes the use orthreatened use of violence against other persons, or

(ii)there is a significant risk of harm to other persons from therespondent.

(2)30For the purposes of this section a local authority or housing provider owns aplace if—

(a)the authority or provider is a person (other than a mortgagee not inpossession) entitled to dispose of the fee simple of the place, whether inpossession or in reversion, or

(b)35the authority or provider is a person who holds or is entitled to the rentsand profits of the place under a lease that (when granted) was for a termof not less then 3 years.

13Tenancy injunctions: exclusion and power of arrest

(1)In this section “tenancy injunction” means an injunction granted—

(a)40on the application of a local authority or a housing provider,

(b)against a person who has a tenancy agreement with the applicant,

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 7

(c)in respect of a breach or anticipated breach of the agreement on theground that the tenant—

(i)is engaging or threatening to engage in anti-social behaviour, or

(ii)is allowing, inciting or encouraging any other person to engage5or threaten to engage in anti-social behaviour.

“Tenancy agreement” here includes any agreement for the occupation ofresidential accommodation.

(2)Subsections (3) and (4) apply where the High Court or the county court grantsa tenancy injunction and is satisfied that—

(a)10the behaviour referred to in subsection (1)(c) consists of or includes theuse or threatened use of violence (or would do so if engaged in), or

(b)there is a significant risk of harm to any person.

(3)The court may include in the tenancy injunction a provision prohibiting theperson against whom it is granted from entering or being in—

(a)15any premises specified in the injunction (including the premises wherethe person normally lives);

(b)any area specified in the injunction.

(4)The court may attach a power of arrest to any provision of the tenancyinjunction.

(5)20The following provisions of this Part apply to a tenancy injunction as theyapply to an injunction under section 1—

(a)section 1(6);

(b)sections 3(2) and 8 (if a power of arrest is attached);

(c)sections 5 to 7;

(d)25section 9;

(e)section 10 and Schedule 1;

(f)section 11 and Schedule 2;

(g)section 18(1).

Supplemental

1430Requirements to consult etc

(1)A person applying for an injunction under section 1 must before doing so—

(a)consult the local youth offending team about the application, if therespondent will be aged under 18 when the application is made;

(b)inform any other body or individual the applicant thinks appropriate35of the application.

This subsection does not apply to a without-notice application.

(2)Where the court adjourns a without-notice application, before the date of thefirst on-notice hearing the applicant must—

(a)consult the local youth offending team about the application, if the40respondent will be aged under 18 on that date;

(b)inform any other body or individual the applicant thinks appropriateof the application.

(3)A person applying for variation or discharge of an injunction under section 1granted on that person’s application must before doing so—

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 8

(a)consult the local youth offending team about the application forvariation or discharge, if the respondent will be aged under 18 whenthat application is made;

(b)inform any other body or individual the applicant thinks appropriate5of that application.

(4)In this section—

15Appeals against decisions of youth courts

(1)An appeal lies to the Crown Court against a decision of a youth court madeunder this Part.

(2)20On an appeal under this section the Crown Court may make—

(a)whatever orders are necessary to give effect to its determination of theappeal;

(b)whatever incidental or consequential orders appear to it to be just.

(3)An order of the Crown Court made on an appeal under this section (other than25one directing that an application be re-heard by the youth court) is to be treatedfor the purposes of section 7 as an order of the youth court.

16Special measures for witnesses

(1)Chapter 1 of Part 2 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999(special measures directions in the case of vulnerable and intimidated30witnesses) applies to proceedings under this Part as it applies to criminalproceedings, but with—

(a)the omission of the provisions of that Act mentioned in subsection (2)(which make provision appropriate only in the context of criminalproceedings), and

(b)35any other necessary modifications.

(2)The provisions are—

(a)section 17(4) to (7);

(b)section 21(4C)(e);

(c)section 22A;

(d)40section 27(10);

(e)section 32.

(3)Rules of court made under or for the purposes of Chapter 1 of Part 2 of that Actapply to proceedings under this Part—

(a)to the extent provided by rules of court, and

(b)45subject to any modifications provided by rules of court.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 9

(4)Section 47 of that Act (restrictions on reporting special measures directions etc)applies with any necessary modifications—

(a)to a direction under section 19 of that Act as applied by this section;

(b)to a direction discharging or varying such a direction.

5Sections 49 and 51 of that Act (offences) apply accordingly.

17Children and young persons: disapplication of reporting restrictions

Section 49 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (restrictions on reportsof proceedings in which children and young persons are concerned) does notapply to proceedings under this Part.

1810Rules of court

(1)Rules of court may provide that an appeal from a decision of the High Court,the county court or a youth court—

(a)to dismiss an application for an injunction under section 1 madewithout notice being given to the respondent, or

(b)15to refuse to grant an interim injunction when adjourning proceedingsfollowing such an application,

may be made without notice being given to the respondent.

(2)In relation to a respondent attaining the age of 18 after proceedings under thisPart have begun, rules of court may—

(a)20provide for the transfer of the proceedings from the youth court to theHigh Court or the county court;

(b)prescribe circumstances in which the proceedings may or must remainin the youth court.

19Interpretation etc

(1)25In this Part—

(2)A person’s age is treated for the purposes of this Part as being that which itappears to the court to be after considering any available evidence.

20Saving and transitional provision

(1)In this section “existing order” means any of the following injunctions and15orders—

(a)an anti-social behaviour injunction under section 153A of the HousingAct 1996;

(b)an injunction under section 153B of that Act (injunction againstunlawful use of premises);

(c)20an injunction in which anything is included by virtue of section 153D(3)or (4) of that Act (power to include provision banning person frompremises or area, or to include power of arrest, in injunction againstbreach of tenancy agreement);

(d)an order under section 1 or 1B of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (anti-25social behaviour orders etc);

(e)an individual support order under section 1AA of that Act made inconnection with an order under section 1 or 1B of that Act;

(f)an intervention order under section 1G of that Act;

(g)a drinking banning order under section 3 or 4 of the Violent Crime30Reduction Act 2006.

(2)The repeal or amendment by this Act of provisions about any of the existingorders specified in subsection (1)(a) to (d), (f) and (g) does not apply in relationto—

(a)an application made before the commencement day for an existing35order;

(b)an existing order (whether made before or after that day) applied forbefore that day;

(c)anything done in connection with such an application or order.

(3)The repeal or amendment by this Act of provisions about an order specified in40subsection (1)(e) does not apply in relation to—

(a)an individual support order made before the commencement day;

(b)anything done in connection with such an order.

(4)As from the commencement day there may be no variation of an existing orderthat extends the period of the order or of any of its provisions.

(5)45At the end of the period of 5 years beginning with the commencement day—

(a)in relation to any of the existing orders specified in subsection (1)(a), (b)and (d) to (g) that is still in force, this Part has effect, with any necessary

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 11

modifications (and with any modifications specified in an order undersection 141(6)), as if the provisions of the order were provisions of aninjunction under section 1;

(b)the provisions of this Part set out in section 13(5) apply to any5injunction specified in subsection (1)(c) that is still in force as they applyto an injunction under section 1;

(c)subsections (2) to (4) cease to have effect.

(6)In deciding whether to grant an injunction under section 1 a court may takeaccount of conduct occurring up to 6 months before the commencement day.

(7)10In this section “commencement day” means the day on which this Part comesinto force.

Part 2Criminal behaviour orders

Criminal behaviour orders

2115Power to make orders

(1)This section applies where a person (“the offender”) is convicted of an offence.

(2)The court may make a criminal behaviour order against the offender if twoconditions are met.

(3)The first condition is that the court is satisfied that the offender has engaged in20behaviour that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress toone or more persons not of the same household as the offender.

(4)The second condition is that the court considers that making the order will helpin preventing the offender from engaging in such behaviour.

(5)A criminal behaviour order is an order which, for the purpose of preventing25the offender from engaging in such behaviour—

(a)prohibits the offender from doing anything described in the order;

(b)requires the offender to do anything described in the order.

(6)The court may make a criminal behaviour order against the offender only if itis made in addition to—

(a)30a sentence imposed in respect of the offence, or

(b)an order discharging the offender conditionally.

(7)The court may make a criminal behaviour order against the offender only onthe application of the prosecution.

(8)The prosecution must find out the views of the local youth offending team35before applying for a criminal behaviour order to be made if the offender willbe under the age of 18 when the application is made.

(9)Prohibitions and requirements in a criminal behaviour order must, so far aspracticable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the offender’s religious beliefs;

(b)40any interference with the times, if any, at which the offender normallyworks or attends school or any other educational establishment;

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 12

(c)any conflict with the requirements of any other court order orinjunction to which the offender may be subject.

(10)In this section “local youth offending team” means—

(a)the youth offending team in whose area it appears to the prosecution5that the offender lives, or

(b)if it appears to the prosecution that the offender lives in more than onesuch area, whichever one or more of the relevant youth offendingteams the prosecution thinks appropriate.

22Proceedings on an application for an order

(1)10For the purpose of deciding whether to make a criminal behaviour order thecourt may consider evidence led by the prosecution and evidence led by theoffender.

(2)It does not matter whether the evidence would have been admissible in theproceedings in which the offender was convicted.

(3)15The court may adjourn any proceedings on an application for a criminalbehaviour order even after sentencing the offender.

(4)If the offender does not appear for any adjourned proceedings the court may—

(a)further adjourn the proceedings,

(b)issue a warrant for the offender’s arrest, or

(c)20hear the proceedings in the offender’s absence.

(5)The court may not act under paragraph (b) of subsection (4) unless it is satisfiedthat the offender has had adequate notice of the time and place of theadjourned proceedings.

(6)The court may not act under paragraph (c) of subsection (4) unless it is satisfied25that the offender—

(a)has had adequate notice of the time and place of the adjournedproceedings, and

(b)has been informed that if the offender does not appear for thoseproceedings the court may hear the proceedings in his or her absence.

(7)30Subsection (8) applies in relation to proceedings in which a criminal behaviourorder is made against an offender who is under the age of 18.

(8)In so far as the proceedings relate to the making of the order—

(a)section 49 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (restrictions onreports of proceedings in which children and young persons are35concerned) does not apply in respect of the offender;

(b)section 39 of that Act (power to prohibit publication of certain matters)does so apply.

23Requirements included in orders

(1)A criminal behaviour order that includes a requirement must specify the40person who is to be responsible for supervising compliance with therequirement.

The person may be an individual or an organisation.

The person may be an individual or an organisation.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 13

(2)Before including a requirement, the court must receive evidence about itssuitability and enforceability from—

(a)the individual to be specified under subsection (1), if an individual is tobe specified;

(b)5an individual representing the organisation to be specified undersubsection (1), if an organisation is to be specified.

(3)Before including two or more requirements, the court must consider theircompatibility with each other.

(4)It is the duty of a person specified under subsection (1)

(a)10to make any necessary arrangements in connection with therequirements for which the person has responsibility (the “relevantrequirements”);

(b)to promote the offender’s compliance with the relevant requirements;

(c)if the person considers that the offender—

(i)15has complied with all the relevant requirements, or

(ii)has failed to comply with a relevant requirement,

to inform the prosecution and the appropriate chief officer of police.

(5)In subsection (4)(c) “the appropriate chief officer of police” means—

(a)the chief officer of police for the police area in which it appears to the20person specified under subsection (1) that the offender lives, or

(b)if it appears to that person that the offender lives in more than onepolice area, whichever of the relevant chief officers of police that personthinks it most appropriate to inform.

(6)An offender subject to a requirement in a criminal behaviour order must—

(a)25keep in touch with the person specified under subsection (1) in relationto that requirement, in accordance with any instructions given by thatperson from time to time;

(b)notify the person of any change of address.

These obligations have effect as requirements of the order.

2430Duration of order etc

(1)A criminal behaviour order takes effect on the day it is made, subject tosubsection (2).

(2)If on the day a criminal behaviour order (“the new order”) is made the offenderis subject to another criminal behaviour order (“the previous order”), the new35order may be made so as to take effect on the day on which the previous orderceases to have effect.

(3)A criminal behaviour order must specify the period (“the order period”) forwhich it has effect.

(4)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made before the offender has reached40the age of 18, the order period must be a fixed period of—

(a)not less than 1 year, and

(b)not more than 3 years.

(5)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made after the offender has reachedthe age of 18, the order period must be—

(a)45a fixed period of not less than 2 years, or

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 14

(b)an indefinite period (so that the order has effect until further order).

(6)A criminal behaviour order may specify periods for which particularprohibitions or requirements have effect.

Interim orders

255Interim orders

(1)This section applies where a court adjourns the hearing of an application for acriminal behaviour order.

(2)The court may make a criminal behaviour order that lasts until the finalhearing of the application or until further order (“an interim order”) if the court10thinks it just to do so.

(3)Section 21(6) to (8) and section 24(3) to (5) do not apply in relation to themaking of an interim order.

(4)Subject to that, the court has the same powers whether or not the criminalbehaviour order is an interim order.

15Variation and discharge

26Variation or discharge of orders

(1)A criminal behaviour order may be varied or discharged by the court whichmade it on the application of—

(a)the offender, or

(b)20the prosecution.

(2)If an application by the offender under this section is dismissed, the offendermay make no further application under this section without—

(a)the consent of the court which made the order, or

(b)the agreement of the prosecution.

(3)25If an application by the prosecution under this section is dismissed, theprosecution may make no further application under this section without—

(a)the consent of the court which made the order, or

(b)the agreement of the offender.

(4)The power to vary an order includes power to include an additional30prohibition or requirement in the order or to extend the period for which aprohibition or requirement has effect.

(5)Section 23 applies to additional requirements included under subsection (4) asit applies to requirements included in a new order.

(6)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made by a magistrates’ court, the35references in this section to the court which made the order include a referenceto any magistrates’ court acting in the same local justice area as that court.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing BillPage 15

Review of orders (under-18s)

27Review of orders

(1)If—

(a)a person subject to a criminal behaviour order will be under the age of518 at the end of a review period (see subsection (2)),

(b)the term of the order runs until the end of that period or beyond, and

(c)the order is not discharged before the end of that period,

a review of the operation of the order must be carried out before the end of thatperiod.

(2)10The “review periods” are—

(a)the period of 12 months beginning with—

(i)the day on which the criminal behaviour order takes effect, or

(ii)if during that period the order is varied under section 26, theday on which it is varied (or most recently varied, if the order is15varied more than once);

(b)a period of 12 months beginning with—

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2013-2014/0007/cbill_2013-20140007_en_2.htm