--START--Ten-code - Wikipedia

Ten-codes, officially known as ten signals, are brevity codes used to represent common phrases in voice communication, particularly by law enforcement and in Citizens Band (CB) radio transmissions.

The codes, developed in 1937 and expanded in 1974 by the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-International (APCO), allow brevity and standardization of message traffic. They have historically been widely used by law enforcement officers in North America, but, due to the lack of standardization, in 2006 the U.S. federal government recommended they be discontinued in favor of everyday language.[1]

APCO first proposed Morse code brevity codes in the June 1935 issue of The APCO Bulletin, which were adapted from the procedure symbols of the U.S. Navy.[2]

The development of the APCO Ten Signals began in 1937 to reduce use of speech on the radio at a time when police radio channels were limited. Credit for inventing the codes goes to Charles "Charlie" Hopper, communications director for the Illinois State Police, District 10 in Pesotum, Illinois. Hopper had been involved in radio for years and realized there was a need to abbreviate transmissions on State Police bands.[3] Experienced radio operators knew the first syllable of a transmission was frequently not understood because of quirks in early electronics technology. Radios in the 1930s were based on vacuum tubes powered by a small motor-generator called a dynamotor. The dynamotor took from 1/10 to 1/4 of a second to "spin up" to full power. Police officers were trained to push the microphone button, then pause briefly before speaking; however, sometimes they would forget to wait. Preceding each code with "ten-" gave the radio transmitter time to reach full power. An APCO Bulletin of January 1940 lists codes assigned as part of standardization;[4]

The Ten Signals were included in APCO Project Two (1967), "Public Safety Standard Operating Procedures Manual", published as study cards in APCO Project 4 (1973), "Ten Signal Cards", and then revised in APCO Project 14 (1974).[5][6][7][8]

Ten-codes, especially "10-4" (meaning "understood") first reached public recognition in the mid- to late-1950s through the popular television series Highway Patrol, with Broderick Crawford. Crawford would reach into his patrol car to use the microphone to answer a call and precede his response with "10-4".

Ten-codes were adapted for use by CB radio enthusiasts. C. W. McCall's hit song "Convoy" (1975), depicting conversation among CB-communicating truckers, put phrases like 10-4 and what's your twenty? (10-20 for "where are you?") into common use in American English.

The movie Convoy (1978), loosely based on McCall's song, further entrenched ten-codes in casual conversation.

The ten-codes used by the New York Police Department[9] have returned to public attention thanks to the popularity of the television series Blue Bloods. However, it must be noted that the ten-codes used by the NYPD are not the same as those used in the APCO system (see below). For example, in the NYPD system, Code 10-13 means "Officer needs help," whereas in the APCO system "Officer needs help" is Code 10-33.

The New Zealand Reality Television show Police Ten 7 takes its name from the New Zealand Police ten-code 10-7, which means "Unit has arrived at job".

In the last episode of the anime "Kekkai Sensen & Beyond", Leonardo uses the code 10-33 in a message to signal that he is in a situation beyond his control.

While ten-codes were intended to be a terse, concise, and standardized system, the proliferation of different meanings can render them useless in situations when officers from different agencies and jurisdictions need to communicate.

In the fall of 2005, responding to inter-organizational communication problems during the rescue operations after Hurricane Katrina, the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) discouraged the use of ten-codes and other codes due to their wide variation in meaning.[10][11] The Department of Homeland Security's SAFECOM program, established in response to communication problems experienced during the September 11 attacks also advises local agencies on how and why to transition to plain language,[12] and their use is expressly forbidden in the nationally standardized Incident Command System, as is the use of other codes.[13]

APCO International's current position states that plain speech communications over public safety radio systems is preferred over the traditional 10-Codes and dispatch signals,[14] As of 2011[update], ten-codes remain in common use in many areas, but are increasingly being phased out in favor of plain language,[1] with nineteen states planning to change to plain English as of the end of 2009[update].[15]

Many additional codes have been added by individual local or regional first-response agencies; these are not standard across jurisdictions and may be problematic if multiple organizations must respond to the same incident.

SignalAPCO Meaning1937 APCO1939 First Published Set (17 signals)[17]1940 (APCO Standards Committee)[18]1955 (National Operating Procedure Committee)[19]APCO Project 2 (1967)[20]APCO Project 4 (1973)APCO Project 14 (1974)[21][22]Clear Speech

(c. 1971)

(plain language to replace Ten Codes)[23]

Phrase Word Brevity Code (c. 1979)[24]Procedure and Officer DetailsGo AheadUnder ControlIn PursuitTraffic Stop10-0————Use caution10-1Receiving poorly.Receiving poorlyUnable to copy - change locationSignal WeakUnable to copy - change locationUnreadable10-2Receiving well.Receiving wellSignals goodSignal Good—10-3Stop transmitting.Disregard last informationStop transmittingStop TransmittingStop transmitting10-4Acknowledgement.Message receivedAcknowledgementAffirmative (Ok)RogerRoger/Affirmative10-5Relay.RelayRelayRelay (To)Relay10-6Busy.Busy, stand byBusy -Stand by unless urgentBusyBusy10-7Out of service.Out of serviceOut of service (Give location and/or telephone number)Out of ServiceOut at ...Out of Service10-7 A—Not Available10-7 B—Off Radio10-8In service.In serviceIn serviceIn ServiceClearIn Service10-9Repeat, conditions bad.RepeatRepeatSay AgainSay againSay Again10-10Out of service--subject to call.On minor detail, subject to callFight in progressNegative—10-11Dispatching too rapidly.Stay in serviceDog Case... On Duty—On Radio10-12Officials or visitors present.Visitors or officials presentStand by (stop)Stand By (Stop)Stand byStand By10-13Advise weather and road conditions.Weather and road conditionsWeather and road reportExisting ConditionsWeather report/road report10-14Convoy or escort.Convoy or escortReport of prowlerMessage/Information—Prepare to Copy10-15We have prisoner in custody.We have prisoner in custodyCivil disturbanceMessage DeliveredDisturbance10-16Pick up prisoner at ...Pick up prisoner atDomestic troubleReply to Message—10-17Pick up papers at ...Pick up papers atMeet complainantEnroute—Responding10-17 A————Theft10-17 B————Vandalism10-17 C————Shoplifting10-18Complete present assignment as quickly as possible.Anything for us?Complete assignment quicklyUrgentUrgentPriority10-19Return to your station.Nothing for youReturn to ...(In) ContactReturn to ...10-20What is your location?LocationLocationLocationLocation10-21Call this station by telephone.Call ... by phoneCall ... by telephoneCall (...) by PhoneCall ...Telephone10-22Take no further action last information.Report in person to ...DisregardDisregardDisregardDisregard10-23Stand by until no interference cause to Iowa (Mo.) etc.Arrived at sceneArrived at sceneArrived at SceneOn scene10-24Trouble at station--unwelcome visitors--all units vicinity report at once.Finished with last assignmentAssignment completedAssignment Completed—Available10-25Do you have contact with...?Operator or officer on duty?Report in person to (meet) ...Report to (Meet) ...Meet ... or contact ...10-26Can you obtain automobile registration information?Holding subject, rush replyDetaining subject, expediteEstimated Arrival TimeDetaining subject, expedite10-27Any answer our number...?Request driver's license informationDrivers license informationLicense/Permit InformationDrivers license information on ...10-28Check full registration information.Request full registration informationVehicle registration informationOwnership InformationRegistration information on ...10-29Check for wanted.Check record for wantedCheck records for wanted.Records CheckCheck for wanted on ...Emergency or Unusual10-30Does not conform to rules and regulations.Does not conform to rules and regulationsIllegal use of radioDanger/Caution—Use Caution10-31Is lie detector available?Emergency basis, all squads, 10-11Crime in progressPick Up—10-31 A————Burglary10-31 B————Robery10-31 C————Homicide10-31 D————Kidnapping10-31 E————Shooting10-32Is drunkometer available?Chase, all squads stand byMan with gun... Units Needed (Specify)—10-33Emergency traffic at this station--clear?Emergency traffic this stationEMERGENCYHelp Me Quick—Help Officer10-34Clear for local dispatch?Trouble at station, assistance neededRiotTime—10-35Confidential information.Major crime, blocadeMajor crime alert—Reserved——10-36Correct time?—Correct time—Reserved——10-37Operator on duty?No rushInvestigate suspicious vehicle—Reserved——10-38Station report--satisfactory.Hurry, but do not use red light or sirenStopping suspicious vehicle (Give station complete description before stopping).—Reserved—Traffic stop on ...10-39Your Nr...delivered to addressee.Use red light and sirenUrgent-Use light and siren—Reserved——General UsePrivate Use10-40Advise if Officer...available for radio call.NotificationSilent run - No light or siren—10-41Tune to ... kcs. for test with mobile unit or emergency service.Car change at ...Beginning tour of duty—10-42—Crew change at ...Ending tour of dutyOff duty10-43—Take school crossingInformation—10-44——Request permission to leave patrol ... for ...Request for ...10-45——Animal carcass in ... lane at ...—10-46——Assist motoristAssist motorist10-47——Emergency road repairs needed—10-48——Traffic standard needs repairs—10-49—Hourly report markTraffic light outEast bound green light out (etc.)Accident and Vehicle Handling10-50—Auto accident, property damage onlyAccident -- F, PI, PDTraffic (F, PD)


10-51—Auto accident, wrecker sentWrecker needed—10-52—Auto accident, personal injuries, ambulance sentAmbulance needed—10-53—Auto accident, fatalRoad blocked—10-54——Livestock on highway—10-55—Drunken driverIntoxicated driver—10-56——Intoxicated pedestrianDrunk pedestrian10-57——Hit and run -- F, PI, PD—10-58—Is wrecker on the way?Direct traffic—10-59—Is ambulance on the way?Convoy or escort—Net Message Handling10-60What is next item (message) number?What is your next message number?Squad in vicinity—10-61Stand by for CW traffic on ... kcs.CW trafficPersonnel in area.—10-62Unable to copy phone--use CW.Any answer our Nr. ...Reply to message—10-63Net directed.TimePrepare to make written copyPrepare to copy10-64Net free.—Message for local delivery—10-65Clear for item (message) assignment?Clear for message assignmentNet message assignment—10-66Clear for cancellation?Clear for cancellationMessage cancellation—10-67Stations...carry this item (message).Clear for net messageClear to read net message—10-68Repeat dispatch.—Dispatch information—10-69Have you dispatched...?—Message received—Fire10-70Net message (State net traffic).Fire, phone alarmFire alarmFire10-71Proceed with traffic in sequence (busy here).Box alarmAdvise nature of fire (size, type, and contents of building)—10-72—Second alarmReport progress on fire—10-73—Third alarmSmoke report—10-74—Fourth alarmNegativeNegative10-75—Fifth alarmIn contact with—10-76—Fire equipment neededEn RouteEn route ...10-77—Fire, grassETA (Estimated Time of Arrival)ETA (Estimated time of arrival)10-78—Set up command postNeed assistanceRequest Assistance10-79—Report progress on fireNotify coronerNotify coroner (to be done by phone whenever possible)The 80 series is reserved for assignment by nets for local use.Personal Favors—10-80... tower lights at this station burned out.——Chase10-81Officer Nr. ... will be at your station ...———10-82Reserve room with bath at hotel for officer Nr. ...Reserve hotel roomReserve lodging—10-83Have officer Nr. ... call this station by telephone.———10-84Advise telephone Nr. ... your city that officer Nr. ... will not return this date.—If meeting ... advise ETA—10-85Officer ... left this station for ... (Jefferson City) (Des Moines) at ...—Will be late—10-86Officer ... left this station for ... at ...———10-87Officer Nr. ... will be in ... if officer Nr. ... will be in.—Pick up checks for distribution—10-88What phone number shall we call to make station to station call to officer Nr. ...?Advise phone number for station to station callAdvise present telephone number of ...—10-89Request radio service man be sent to this station...Radio transmission—Bomb threatTechnical10-90Radio service man will be at your station ....Transmit on alternate frequencyBank alarmAlarm (type of alarm)10-91Prepare for inspection (date) ... (time) ...—Unnecessary use of radioPick up prisoner10-92Your quality poor--transmitter apparently out of adjustment.——Parking complaint10-93Frequencies to be checked this date.Frequency checkBlockade—10-94Test--no modulation--for frequency check.Give me a testDrag racing—10-95Test intermittently with normal modulation for ...——Prisoner in custody10-96Test continuously with tone modulation for ...—Mental subject—10-97———Check traffic signal10-98——Prison or jail breakPrison/jail break10-99——Records indicate wanted or stolenWanted/stolenClear Speech (c. 1971) (plain language to replace Ten Codes)[23]Procedure Word/CodeMeaningROGERTo be used as acknowledgement.AFFIRMATIVETo be used when "yes" is needed.HELPTo be used when in danger and urgent assistance is needed.CODE ONEInforms all units to STANDBY - STOP TRANSMITTING. Do not transmit, except for emergency messages, while Code 1 is in effect. Dispatch shall announce, "Clear Code 1," when the condition is secured.CODE TWOIndicates an "urgent" call short of an "emergency" situation. A Code 2 call has priority over all other police activities except "emergencies".

Proceed directly to Code 2 calls as quickly as is consistent with safety. Agents may, in exceptional cases, use their emergency equipment (both visual and audible to comply with state law) to transverse an otherwise clear intersection against a red traffic control device. Once clear of the intersection - turn off the emergency equipment.

CODE THREEIndicates an EMERGENCY call. Red lights and siren are authorized. Proceed as quickly as possible with due regard for safety, and in compliance with the laws governing emergency vehicles.CODE FOURUsed to indicate that sufficient units have responded to a location, or that assistance is not needed, or is no longer needed.CODE FIVEUsed when Wanted/Records checks are requested by an agent to alert the agent of a wanted felon, a person known to be dangerous or a person known to be mentally unstable.

A backup unit shall be dispatched Code 2 on all Code 5's.

Personnel will NOT proceed with Code 5 details until the receiving unit requests same. The unit receiving a Code 5 will request the details when he is in a safe position to do so, which might not be until his backup arrives.

CODE SIXWhen an agent is dispatched to a traffic accident, and the dispatcher states, "Code 6," the agent will advise the drivers involved to proceed to the situation to file their reports. This will only be done if there are no injuries, no unusual circumstance and the vehicles are safely operable. Driver Exchange Forms will be completed at the scene to include the C. R. number.CODE SEVENIndicates "out of service - personal."CODE EIGHTAssist a fire department.