|Trade names||Transdermscop, Kwells, others|
|Synonyms||hyoscine hydrobromide, scopolamine hydrobromide|
|by mouth, skin patch, eye drops, subcutaneous, intravenous, sublingual, rectal, buccal transmucousal, intramuscular|
|Biological half-life||4.5 hours|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Formula||C 17H 21N O 4|
|Molar mass||303.353 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|N Y (what is this?) (verify)|
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting. It is also sometimes used before surgery to decrease saliva. When used by injection, effects begin after about 20 minutes and last for up to 8 hours. It may also be used by mouth and as a dermal patch.
Common side effects include sleepiness, blurred vision, dilated pupils, and dry mouth. It is not recommended in people with glaucoma or bowel obstruction. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe; however, it appears to be safe during breastfeeding. Hyoscine is in the antimuscarinic family of medications and works by blocking some of the effects of acetylcholine within the nervous system.
Hyoscine was first written about in 1881 and came into medical use in 1947. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Hyoscine is produced from plants of the nightshade family. The name "scopolamine" is derived from one type of nightshade known as Scopolia while "hyoscine" is from another type known as Hyoscyamus niger.
Hyoscine crosses the placenta and is a United States pregnancy category C and Australian Category B1 medication, meaning a risk to the fetus cannot be ruled out. Sufficient studies in women and animals are not available to rule out harm, but existing studies have not shown increased risk. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus. It may cause respiratory depression and/or neonatalhemorrhage when used during pregnancy. Transdermal hyoscine has been used as an adjunct to epidural anesthesia for Caesarean delivery without adverse CNS effects on the newborn. Except when used prior to Caesarean section, it should only be used during pregnancy if the benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Hyoscine enters breast milk by secretion. Although no human studies exist to document the safety of hyoscine while nursing, the manufacturer recommends that caution be taken if hyoscine is administered to a breastfeeding woman.
The likelihood of experiencing adverse effects from hyoscine is increased in the elderly relative to younger people. This phenomenon is especially true for older people who are also on several other medications. It is recommended that hyoscine use should be avoided in this age group because of these potent anticholinergic adverse effects.
Uncommon (0.1–1% incidence) adverse effects include: